Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient to insert the penis into the vagina and have satisfactory sexual intercourse. Common sexual dysfunctions such as decreased sex drive, premature ejaculation, and infertility are not considered erectile dysfunction. This disorder significantly affects the life of most men suffering from it.
The worst nightmare of every man is to discover that at the height of the most passionate moment he does not have an erection. But they are lucky, because we live in the XXI century, and medical research began to bear results. Today, if you suffer from erectile dysfunction, at your disposal there are different methods of treatment – from the complex treatment of impotence to effective short-acting drugs. Viagra is the most famous of…
Today we offer you an article on how to prevent “male” diseases and preserve men’s health. It is no secret that often caring for men’s health falls on fragile women’s shoulders, because according to statistics, women are interested in their health 10 times more than men. What explains such a frivolous attitude of men to their own health? Fear to show their weakness? Or they do not notice or ignore the problem, fearing treatment or…
Cells are the main building blocks. Each organ in our body consists of cells: those that define this organ (for example, nerve cells in the brain, muscle cells in the heart), and those that support the organ, such as blood vessels and cells of the immune system. The immune system protects us from infection, controls the growth of abnormal cells and helps repair the damage that occurs in the body, restore the normal functioning of the body.
Our immune system consists of physical barriers and several types of immune cells and organs. Physical barriers (for example, the oily layer on the skin surface, the mucous membrane of the nose, lungs, intestines, and gastric juice) are the main part of the immune system that prevents bacteria from entering the body.
Bone Marrow – The Main Source of Cells Production
The cells that are involved in the immune system are mainly produced by the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft spongy tissue that is located inside major bones. It acts as a factory in which stem cells produce a constant supply of blood cells; red blood cells carry oxygen, platelets repair leaking blood vessels and white blood cells. White blood cells (or immune cells) fight infection, detect and eliminate abnormal cells in the body. There are many different types of white blood cells in the immune system that have evolved to perform various tasks. For example, some white blood immune cells are intended for fighting bacterial infections (such as neutrophils), while other immune cells are better for fighting parasites like worms (e.g. eosinophils).
The Lymphatic System
Immune cells circulate not only throughout the body through the blood flow, but also through the network of vessels called the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is a collection of tubes of much smaller diameter, but it runs along the same transport routes as the blood vessels. Lymphatic vessels are connected to the immune system through a series of lymph glands (or nodes) and lymph organs.
If we consider white blood immune cells as soldiers, then these lymph nodes and organs act as barracks. Lymphatic organs include the spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, but immune cells also collect in special places in various organs (for example, in Peyer’s plaques in the intestines). Together, these locations make up the lymphatic system.
Immune cells constantly circulate in the blood, lingering briefly in these lymphatic organs, where they can exchange information about infections and abnormal cells in order to prepare to fight the infection the next time they meet it. This is the place where the cells of the immune system learn about vaccinations (such as diphtheria and tetanus) and the reason why you experience a feeling of “swollen glands” in your neck when you suffer from a cold. This sphere has been thoroughly studied by specialists from all over the world. For example, the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education has published an article written by William Allan Prescott, Jr., PharmD,a,b Christian Bernhardi, BSa. They explain the details of immunization in the USA, its necessity and importance. You may read this article here – https://www.ajpe.org/doi/full/10.5688/ajpe6765.
How to Control the Immune System?
The main cells of the immune system do a simple job: circulate in the body, detect pests and kill them.
Complex cells of the immune system, such as lymphocytes, go through a complex checkpoint process, for obvious reasons: they can turn on the alarm, which sets the full-blown immune response in motion. After the lymphocytes recognize another cell, their response to this identification is verified by a dozen further “handshakes”, checked and double-checked at control points. These milestones have evolved in order to provide an appropriate immune response that never occurs for no reason.
These checkpoints are pairs of proteins that line up against each other when the surface of the lymphocyte comes in contact with the surface of the cell. At the end of this contact, a decision is made: the lymphocyte either triggers an alarm to send an immune response and tries to kill the cell, or makes sure that the other cell is not dangerous and gives a “green light”.
Some of the checkpoint proteins are very important in the treatment of cancer (CTLA4, PD1, and PD-L1), while the rest are currently under intensive research to find a way to target them in lymphocytes and help cancer patients.
A professional association is an organization that brings together people with special professional qualifications who work in the same or similar fields. The purpose of its creation is to promote the professional development of participants through an organization, provide information support, ensure the right to engage in a certain type of activity, help in finding employment, create favorable conditions for work, fight for a decent salary level, protect the rights of specialists, represent their interests,…
A feeling of chronic fatigue, depression and bad mood can make even the most healthy person sick. My Canadian Pharmacy offers you the simplest and most enjoyable ways to improve your health and well-being. Very often, in order to improve your health, it is not necessary to visit a doctor but you can simply review your habits and bring more positive emotions to life. How to improve your health? 1. Eating colored food An abundant amount…
From 1989 to 2003, a total of 279 distinct positive culture findings for M tuberculosis were identified. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 populations are shown in Figure 1. The incidence in 1989 was 5.2/100,000, decreased to 3.5/100,000 in 1993, increased to 11.1/100,000 in 1998, and reached 7.6/ 100,000 in 2003. An increasing trend in incidence rates of culture-positive tuberculosis was observed during the study period. This was statistically significant (x2 = 19.647; p = 0.0001)….
The present study demonstrates that in a surgical population of patients undergoing CABG, the existence of preoperative NSTE-ACS is associated with a significantly higher mortality within 30 days and a higher incidence of major adverse cardiac events, such as PMI or LCOS, depending on the degree of preoperative cTnI serum elevation. Furthermore, a pre-CABG cTnI level could be shown to be used as an incremental prognostic variable in this patient cohort. cTnI serum levels were…
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of iVx morbidity and mortality throughout the world, The number of cases of tuberculosis showed an initial decline in the United States from 84,304 in 1953 to 22,201 in 1985. The number of reported cases of tuberculosis in the United States increased in 1992 by 18%. The reversal of the downward trend was due to multiple factors, including the AIDS epidemic and the emergence of drug resistance. Drug resistance…
From January 2001 to September 2004, preoperative cTnI was measured in 1,978 consecutive patients scheduled for isolated CABG. Preoperative cTnI values were available in 1,978 of 3,124 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and in whom primary isolated CABG had been performed. Among these patients, negative preoperative cTnI levels ( 1.5 ng/mL) [Fig 1]. There were no significant differences between most perioperative patient characteristics of the remaining 1,146 CABG patients, who were initially not enrolled…